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Michael Rayo

  • 248 Baker Systems Engineering
    1971 Neil Avenue
    Columbus, OH 43210


Ph.D. The Ohio State University, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, 2013

M.S. The Ohio State University, Integrated Systems Engineering, 2007

B.S. Case Western Reserve University, Chemical Engineering, 1993

B.A. Case Western Reserve University, Music, 1993

Dr. Rayo’s research focuses on how the design of cognitive tools influence multi-agent teaming architectures that contribute to adaptive and maladaptive system behaviors.  His work in how alarm design and management, visual analytics, computerized decision support, and interpersonal communication foster system resilience has been funded by the National Patient Safety Foundation, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, the Office of Naval Research, and the Air Force Research Laboratory. He has published numerous papers on patient safety and human factors engineering, and serves on multiple patient safety committees and advisory groups. 

Journal Articles


  • Rayo, M.F.; Patterson, E.S.; Abdel-Rasoul, M.; Moffatt-Bruce, S.D., 2019, "Using timbre to improve performance of larger auditory alarm sets.." Ergonomics 62, no. 12, 1617-1629 - 1617-1629.
  • Melsop, S.; Rayo, M.F.; Klatt, M., 2019, "Working across boundaries toward patient safety: Using design thinking methodologies for transdisciplinary team-of-teams collaboration." International Journal of Design Management and Professional Practice 13, no. 3, 1-12 - 1-12.


  • Edworthy, J.R.; McNeer, R.R.; Bennett, C.L.; Dudaryk, R. et al., 2018, "Getting Better Hospital Alarm Sounds Into a Global Standard." Ergonomics in Design
  • Horwood, C.R.; Moffatt-Bruce, S.D.; Fitzgerald, M.; Rayo, M.F., 2018, "A qualitative analysis of clinical decompensation in the surgical patient: Perceptions of nurses and physicians." Surgery (United States)


  • Rayo, M.F., 2017, "The Future of Medical Devices Is in Teamwork.." Biomedical Instrumentation & Technology 51, 214-215 - 214-215.


  • Rayo, M.F.; Mansfield, J.; Eiferman, D.; Mignery, T. et al., 2016, "Implementing an institution-wide quality improvement policy to ensure appropriate use of continuous cardiac monitoring: A mixed-methods retrospective data analysis and direct observation study." BMJ Quality and Safety 25, no. 10, 796-802 - 796-802.
  • Rayo, M.F.; Moffatt-Bruce, S.D., 2016, "Diagnosing and treating "alarm fatigue": Pragmatic and evidence-based approaches needed." Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety 42, no. 7, 291-292 - 291-292.
  • Mount-Campbell,Austin,F; Rayo,Michael,F; O'Brien,James,J; Allen,Theodore,T; Patterson,Emily,S, 2016, "Patient-Centered Handovers: Ethnographic Observations of Attending and Resident Physicians: Ethnographic Observations of Attending and Resident Physicians." QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN HEALTH CARE 25, no. 4, 225-230 - 225-230.
  • Welch, J.; Rayo, M.; Kanter, B.; Bagian, T. et al., 2016, "Framework for Alarm Management Process Maturity." Biomedical Instrumentation & Technology 50, no. 3, 165-179 - 165-179.


  • Rayo,Michael,F; Kowalczyk,Nina; Liston,Beth,W; Sanders,Elizabeth,BN; White,Susan; Patterson,Emily,S, 2015, "Comparing the Effectiveness of Alerts and Dynamically Annotated Visualizations (DAVs) in Improving Clinical Decision Making." HUMAN FACTORS 57, no. 6, 1002-1014 - 1002-1014.


  • Rayo,Michael,F; Patterson,Emily,S; Liston,Beth,W; White,Susan; Kowalczyk,Nina, 2014, "Determining the Rate of Change in Exposure to Ionizing Radiation From CT Scans: A Database Analysis From One Hospital." JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF RADIOLOGY 11, no. 7, 703-708 - 703-708.


  • Patterson ES; Rayo M; Gill C; Gurcan MN, 2011, "Barriers and facilitators to adoption of soft copy interpretation from the user perspective: Lessons learned from filmless radiology for slideless pathology.." Journal Of Pathology Informatics 2, 1 - 1.
  • Patterson ES, Gill C, Rayo M, Gurcan M, 2011, "Barriers and facilitators to adoption of soft copy interpretation from the user perspective: Lessons learned from filmless radiology for slideless pathology." Pathology Informatics Journal 1, no. 2, 1-4 - 1-4.


  • Rayo MF, Mount-Campbell A, O'Brien Jr J, White S, Evans K, Butz A, Patterson ES, "Interactive questioning in critical care during handovers: A transcript analysis of communication behaviours by physicians, nurses, and nurse practitioners."
  • Rayo M, Moffatt-Bruce SD, "Alarm System Management: evidence-based guidance encouraging direct measurement of informativeness to improve alarm response." British Medical Journal of Quality


  • "Alarms That Deserve Attention presented at the National Coalition for Alarm Management Safety Meeting - March 29, 2016."

Papers in Proceedings


  • Fitzgerald, M.; Rayo, M.F.; Reynolds, M.E.; Abdel-Rasoul, M. et al. "The Importance of Testing Sets of Clinical Alarm Sounds and Navigating Tradeoffs to Translate Research Findings into Implementation:." (9 2019).
  • Rayo, M.F.; Fitzgerald, M.; Mansour, L.; Patterson, E.S. et al. "The final mile – why aren’t people implementing our sounds?." in Human Factors in Healthcare Symposium. (1 2019).
  • Rayo, M.F.; Ferreira, P.; Lay, E.; Allspaw, J. et al. "Systemic contributors roundtable: (re)introducing methods and models to fight the tyranny of root cause analyses." (6 2019).
  • Horwood, C.R.; Fitzgerald, M.; Moffatt-Bruce, S.D.; Rayo, M.F. "Methods for Utilizing Multidisciplinary Team to Create Novel Visual Alarm Designs That Improve Recognition of Patient Decompensation and Alarm Response." (9 2019).
  • Reynolds, M.E.; Rayo, M.F.; Fitzgerald, M.; Rasoul, M.A. et al. "Guidance for Custom Alarm Design: You Don’t Have to “Crank it up to 11”:." (9 2019).


  • Rayo, M.F.; Fairbanks, R.J.; Parker, S.H.; Wolf, L. et al. "Spreading the word: Improving outcomes with human factors engineering (when common sense is not enough)." (1 2018).
  • Horwood, C.R.; Rayo, M.F.; Fitzgerald, M.; Balkin, E.A. et al. "Gaps Between Alarm Capabilities and Decision-making Needs: An Observational Study of Detecting Patient Decompensation." (6 2018).
  • Horwood, C.R.; Rayo, M.F.; Fitzgerald, M.; Balkin, E.A. et al. "Gaps Between Alarm Capabilities and Decision-making Needs: An Observational Study of Detecting Patient Decompensation." (6 2018).


  • Rayo, M.; Smith, P.J.; Roth, E.; Sarter, N. et al. "Making Brittle Technologies Useful." (10 2017).
  • Murphy, T.; Balkin, A.; Rayo, M.; Woods, D.D. et al. "Integrated Multi-Method Probes as a Research Method in Cognitive Systems Engineering." (10 2017).
  • Rayo, M.F.; Fairbanks, R.J. "A Debate on the New RCA: Is it a step in the right direction? The tradeoff between improving ideas and improving systems." (1 2017).
  • Rayo, M.F. "Designing for collaborative autonomy: Updating user-centered design heuristics and evaluation methods." (1 2017).


  • Nguyen, M.C.; Rayo, M.F.; Eiferman, D.S.; Moffatt-Bruce, S.D. "Evidence-Based Cardiac Monitoring in Surgical Patients: Reducing Alarm Fatigue and Improving Resource Allocation." (1 2016).
  • Walker, K.E.; Woods, D.D.; Rayo, M.F. "Multiple systemic contributors versus root cause: Learning from a NASA near miss." (1 2016).


  • Horwood, C.R.; Rayo, M.F.; Fitzgerald, M.; D Annolfo, K. et al. "\textbfUsing Data Visualizations to Improve Situational Awareness: Recognizing Patient Decompensation and False Alarms."
  • Rayo, M.F.; Saurin, T.A. "Making room for slack: strategies for preserving current adaptive capacity and sneaking in some more."